Lares trek notes in the margin

Lares trek notes in the margin
Written by 3mienblog

” Some students reasoned this out mentally – “an article is 6 boxes, Lares is at the top of the second box from the top here, so we write 7 boxes of notes in the margin.” They should not just be told what summative assessment is about and that it must do with the trial exam – this is academic knowledge, which tells us nothing about the nature of learning in this context. Remember to step back and think about operations and processes and try to form hypotheses regarding these. I’ve quoted Bruner (1999) a lot in these notes – he is after all one of the world’s foremost educational researchers and a proponent of discovery learning – and that’s no mistake. Make such constructs as your starting point – “let’s give them limited information as they discovered it” – as we learned in use of analogies in cognitive instruction. Use analogies, visual associations, and other kinesthetic association that change our patterns of thinking. Don’t just tell at it – if students can’t draw it, explain it in words. If this is vague or abstract, demonstrate it with something concrete or specific, like 3 balls in a hat. The problem solved the wrong way seems trivial to the problem solved the right way. Students often find something that works later, but not always at what seems to be the same problem. That’s because problems are embedded in context, and contexts are layered and change as we think about them, often helpfully. What were some of the other factors at play in the students’ strategy in solving this problem?

• 8:50 Kevin O’Malley – Weimar, Germany Humans are natural pattern matchers, but education is more than that. Pattern formation is not just the acquisition of knowledge but various processes of thinking and reflecting. Education has to be more, because knowledge itself is not just a tabula rasa and cannot do all that we want it to do for us, to substitute for action or relationships, as is often claimed. Ability is not just a bundle of abilities and thinking is not just knowing stuff. Now students become students, and mastery becomes a starting point in and of itself. • 9:05 Leonid Rozenblit – The University of Chicago Teachers have really focused on content because they believe they give it at the time the students can enthusiastically and easily process. Students care much more about the heuristics, or course of action to solve problems. The first stage is like Bruner’s naturalist stage – discovery, open questions, we wonder, and search. Hold that as a basic point of view. We live in a teaching and learning community where process matters more than just the stuff. Math education is case in point. Some things are learned by teaching and others by practice, by discovery. This is a case of typical schema-based learning and the spread of effects with learning. The learner silently runs a problem through some mental processes and draws the conclusions. Many think that education is about problem-solving, but I wonder about the level of interaction and situated nature of processes in schooling and education in general. Maybe consider the word problem from the point of view of being located. Situationality is important by locating factors in causal pathways. Reflection can be located to identify problems, hypotheses and options. We want explanations to resonate with our understanding of practice. And discovery follows in the wake of discovery, resulting in achieving knowledge or goal realization. • 9:45 Patricia Benner, University of California-San Francisco Integrating assessments across electronic, computer-based media is a design challenge. Any good design proposal is an idea that rises to the level of conceptual clarity. Design proposals are incremental – they try to combine advances to make them more solid, but they still get you a clue. Include the development of higher-level thinking – these are familiar characters because they emerge in this development. See examples of design appeals – use real countries as examples. They had good examples but not enough on any page that engages you. This is neglected in many educational contexts but one of the bridges to problem-solving in general. • 11:00 Markus Vink: Principal Researcher University of Parma, Italy Looking at design in the reisearch context from a social perspective is fascinating. Design is the process of making in order to contruct (construct with the help of existing elements rather than to invent completely new things). The sculptor Max Bill included the step of deletion – removing useless things to give the thing its meaning. In Claude Levi-Strauss The Savage Mind (1962) the act of creation at one overarching level is not an act of invention but of selection, where you pull together various elements and relations. You start with a problem or a goal, for example. You fill gaps, and you add in elements or connections. You reisource, or bring in elements from outside the tradition you operate from. You interrelate pieces, and you practice it again. At the end, you are left with something that has minimal redundancy and maximal effect with minimal means, like movement in music. • 11:30 Andrew NG – The University of Pennsylvania Many problems are just a way of looking at things. Change problem solving techniques for helpdesk support staff provide a great example. The incoming problem is embedded in context, and context is located on a temporal plane, in a social context. It is important to immerse yourself in this context. Looking at travel problems, combine cycles and routes on one screen. Often activity platter apps turn out to have a bright side as well. We also embody mental models, which means when we make different manipulations, we move through experience in a topographical plane, and that emigration plane corresponds to a process plane. We have different kinds of weights, boxes, and bags, and have different kinds of connectivity, not just spatial. Does it have to be this way, or can we change the plane of experience? • 12:15 Niko Alm – University of Zurich I interrelate things with my iPhone, starting with voice commands and text, but some think too much about that. I want to do math, and don’t want math on my phone, so I edit all off or create things later that I can use on my calculator and want to be productive. How cognitive recoding differs from the spatial metaphor outline on a plane of experience – let’s re-examine the plane of mathematics – how we specify and interrelate these? We want to interpret this in terms of the evolutionary plane, which makes the most sense in terms of development – it’s robust, not just another way of doing things. The thing that works, we do. [Here, I sped up the playback by 90% – sorry but otherwise I’d run out of time on such a great talk.] • 13:30 Frank Reif – Massachusetts Institute of Technology We want to look at these things in a careful manner (schema) and fine, the things that draw all these things together. Telling is fine, but showing seems overly optimistic. A full-valued step-by-step tool is necessary to be able to assess everything interactively. Then there might be some cognitive relaxation – students seem to find a heuristic early on and not quite apply it in all different contexts. We want to minimize errors and limitations, and sometimes we want to mash things together. We want to construct reusable frameworks. Maybe build abstract objects that define sets of variables, or embedded them on a computer. We want to change the question and what direction we go, like moving toward the concepts to solve and solving with the concepts to visualize. Try Appendable – open source with free courseware.

Program Summary by Thomas B. Reeves, University of California-San Diego (Excitable Dog Research Group, Department of Computer Science and Engineering). ¿Hasilnya merupakan tulisan ilmiah, terutama tentang hal-hal kesulitan untuk melakukan penelitian.

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