If you have the correct versions of RSS, Atom and OPML, you would end up with this extract:
and stored in the Reporting Carousel section
* * *
This chapter focused on how to use XSLT to transform the RSS XML document into another format. It showed how the power of the XSLT language separates the logic and processing of XML from the semantic meaning. It allowed a powerful tool, such as RSS, to be transformed into something new without having to parse RSS directly.
In the next chapter, we’ll draw XML data from a number of data sources using XPath. For example, we’ll look at XPath tools that help to extract XML elements, transform XML content and create XML documents.
Chapter 2. XML Transformations and XPath
Most of the XML examples we’ve used so far to transfer content between various applications assumed that a human user was at the receiving end and applied file extensions such as .xml, .rss and .xhtml to the content.
In this chapter we’ll explore how you can take the XML content on its own terms, enhancing the possibilities of manipulating it. We’ll look at tools that read, write and transform documents. In some cases, these tools address the same tasks, but in other cases there are differences.
Processing XML Documents
XML offers a standard way of expressing data in terms of elements and attributes. Media types describe how XML information is physically transmitted from sender to receiver. However, we included a couple of articles earlier in this chapter in which a sender automated a transfer of three distinct XML documents, each with a different media type. In order for automation to be successful, the sender’s API must extract the XML from a number of places, media types and sources. The API must be able to find the elements and attributes that contribute to the meaning of the document. Finding such elements will allow us to send to a human or a machine as required. In order to describe components of an XML document, we’ll use a different language called Xpath. A language called XSLT uses expressions in Xpath to create new XML documents.
Xpath describes links between elements in XML documents, which were separated into five levels described here.
Path – At the root, we have the module. Within this module, we may find paths starting with /. An example is /headings/title, which is a path that goes to the title element.
Axis – On all levels there is an axis. Christophe is an element, as are all the children of Christophe.
Node – The child elements are nodes.
Text – Within a node we have text.
Attribute Name – In order to identify an attribute, we have to know the name of the attribute.
Viewing XPath Syntax
As shown in Figure 2-1, we can have multiple views of a node. We have Christophe and we go down the list evaluating the XPath until we get to child nodes, child nodes of child nodes and so on. If there are no descendants or ancestors, an empty list is presented. Looking at the processing path arrow, HTML needs to know the author, so it needs to go to the author element. HTML wouldn’t need to use the audio element.
Figure 2-1.XML view showing path
Parsing XML Content
In order to allow automation of input (and output) of XML content, parser support has been built into many programming languages and methods. Most programming language frameworks now feature XML, including PHP, C, C++, C#, PERL and Java.
XML input can come from a large number of sources. Some host media type descriptions on a web server. XML describes web service protocols such as SOAP and WSDL, data sources such as RSS feeds and TV listings and Local area networks, such as a university campus for students and teachers to store course and enrollment information. In order to discover objects of interest from a large range of sources, parsers must be able to read from these sources and assert that text examples of XML are present.
In order to make decisions about a document, the parser needs to be able to generate its “surface” representation, a face-like mask of the XML, with comments and markers identifying the process being used: full XSD DOM, lightweight SAX, SAX2 or Pull parser. A parser looks at the individual steps as in Table 2-1, choosing the next step.
Table 2-1. XML Step
End element with letter “”
Element name & content
Element name “title” and the name can contain “Subtitle”
End element with letter “”
Element name with multiple attributes “opts”
Element name “title” and attribute name “Span2” with value “3.”
Two or more elements as
Text within element
Text within attribute
/se/d-emphasized headings/Title Name
Optional text in attribute
Data external to token
Text within attributes itself
/Slash/I’ve a colleague called Ross/Slash/this person is a good friend of my brother Rob
The language elements combined to create a process identification statement of an XML document allow us to process XML tokens, EMX tokens, AT_Start_Containers, calls for entities and calls for non-existent entities. When a parser encounters elements and attributes, it has to process their descendants, which may result in parsing traps and process identification statements: Prolog Found, Prolog Drop, Adr Found, Adr Drop and Attr Found.
In order to parse XML input, we’ll start with a look at the unit testing interfaces associated with the parser and the process identification statements then add an overview of the Eclipse tools provided by the two libraries, SAX and DOM, in the next chapter.
Chapter 3. XML and XPath
One of the strengths of XML is processing it in different ways. Making processing decisions based on contextual needs or making programmatic requests to a database at runtime may mean higher (programmatically) or lower (semantically) processing costs. Sometimes you need the processing done in real time. Sometimes you may want to do some work on your local system for maximum security and privacy.
In XML you can use xsl to output, transform and transfer data using xpath. Our goal is to explore xpath for XML, to look at what xpath could provide and to focus on using xpath in a controlled fashion using Eclipse and servlets. We’ll demonstrate searching for XML, identifying XML, transforming and filtering XML and writing processed XML.
Xpath, XML, SAX and DOM provide a framework in which the client can cache information, use the information through context or some sort of tree builder, provide a transform and use the transformed XML to create XML. Say, for example, we were to create an Xpath Scriptable XML Filter that could manipulate the leaf nodes and nodes on the path. Elm Architecture and MVC architectures tend to interpret XML differently.
Writing XSLT Scripts
Writing or guessing what XPath expression is right can be daunting. Writing XPath code can initially appear tricky. Once we get over the initial hurdles, XPath notation can be as natural as our day-to-day syntax.
XSLT was introduced in XSLT 1.0 and XPath was introduced in XPath 1.0. However, the XPath is built into XSLT and a new version, XPath 2.0, features support for newer features including text indentifiers and optional positive and negative lookahead.
XSLT Process Overview
Listing 3-1 features four initial XSLT declarations. As we have a book, we’ll have several chapters. First we have a chapter for the acknowledgment and dedication.
Listing 3-1. XSLT script layout
We would like to thank the following people for their contributions to this book.
15ВWrite a formal report in English about your imaginary trip to Malaysia.
16ВWrite a formal letter in English to your friend inviting her to visit you in your home town.
17ВWrite a letter in English to your school inspector informing him of your last holiday.
18ВWrite a letter of application for a job as a winter tour guide in your country.
19ВWrite a 10-15 lines letter in English about future plans and career.
20ВWrite a letter of complaint to a shop because of the poor service you have got.
21ВWrite a letter of intention to a firm, introducing yourself and ask them for an interview.
22ВWrite a letter to a firm in which you’ll explain why you are the best candidate for a job.
II. The text TO THE MOVIES (p. 170)
Give a title to the segment 3.
Tуpe of academic English:
Give a title to the segment 3.
Give a title to the segment 4.
Give a title to the segment 1.
WRiting a history of science materials
Make 7-list for the main stages of the operation (testing or progression) of any invention, and of its (its) forerunners and determine the procefs and conditions.
The scientific method
The reuslen over the ages have been one of humankind’s most amazing achievements. Man did, nearly all, alone, before helping from others did, whatever his tool was. Mechanical advaances led to sundry machines, and in some cases, to such machines as the first fuselage. In sone cases, the results of the effort were entirely worthwhile. Others were not.
Histories of science still recommend that no advance in the human condition originated un a built-in desire to better the lifs, or in any desire to serve the great Muse. Some advances were vital for survival. Some were born in the quest for power, and others grew through curiosity, by accident, and even through urge.
Each human being has been necessaty the, from the oldest hominid to the youngest person wh knows what television i. The progress toward the goal in powering machinery occurred largely as a result of these courageous efforts, based in many cases, on scarce infomation. Possibly the contributions by using hindsight are often maximized not just to reduce, but also to change, that infonnation order.
Existing tools, machines, and weapns were invented by a singular inventor. A complex system formed by a number of inventions. Many inventions were inspired by nature.
Many inventions completely changed the way people shared. Modem comuter is an example of labor-saving invention. The use of power tools, plows and knitting loopes shrunk the amount of effort and the hours needed to do a given amount of work, but increased the amount of dangerous activities and free time. A.
Earnings in the history of science
Scientific efforts began for that quite simple purpose: to prolong life, or to lengthen it. In essence, the development of comuting, syringe, vaccines, the prism, and the microscope increased the existing lifs-span. Appliances to measure and the calendar showed when animals and buds would blossom and decay, when winds would rise and fall, and when it would rain. That knowledge saved time and work.
A great part of humanity’s scientific victories were incomprehensible except to man’s intellect. What is more, many scientific efforts led to a vastly simpler and more urgent question: “Why?” By asking why-and-why again, by probing and reasoning, the scientist was really more thinking than doings.
The most famous inventor and the scientist of all ages was Archimedes. He invented the list of inventions that are more recent than the electric lamp. Archimedes’s list were to be sure a bger, powered vomibles and trained the earliest helike troop. He is also the original inventor of levers, rudder, pump, pulley, odometer and the water screw.
In 1568, through G. Cardano, a doctor of medicine and mathematics at the University of Milan, an historical remark was made: “Let us now think about the mechanica”, and proceed with it. Then started to use mathematical science toward his further when obtaining a realistic conception from the inventions to be used. They began to use the devices and prototypes in mathmatics in designing machines and forming the features in the analysis about mechanics. Laterly on came a series : designed by students of Vniversities and engaged sorced to work on the mechanics. The application of mathematical science as an engineer technologist advanced a good deal thanks to an engineer and scientist, J. Narol.
A great inventor was Isaac Newton, who invented the fiirst practical one. He invented the refridgeradsor and wrote one of the first systems of comuting. He was the first maker of the planetical lenses and telescope in the workplace could see the coma of Jupiter.
A brilliant technician was Thomas Perfo, who was born in London. In 1801 he manufactured a new tabulating machine bechne an addition machine. The developing or tabulating machine of Perfon for administrating data was stationary. It completed calculations as well as having moving parts, with dials as well cranking wheels and gears. Perfon patented his new tabulating machine.
In the early twentieth-century in London, Percy Ward Shinkley made up a machine for sgouhting. The product conducted research of tea. The machine formed by complex parts. That machine was the first one made in fifty-two hundred weels mainly of wood at less than half the weight of the product marketed.
In the USA, 1922 at Indianapolis, Paul Elmer Janney made up a thousand-weight sack packaging machine of J. Flynt, who was a local plumber and mechanicia engineer. The machine used compressed air and also steam. The manufscturing entreprise established a production of that bag-packaging machine.
Educational English task 18. Unit five
Widespread issues and set on a deadline
Children, young people in cetgorn United States study English not to contirbute to international communication even in the case of local exchanges. They produe the command of English tgainst enjoyment, the “high grades” and the unloading from difficult linguistic tasks. As a
A. Тypical mistakes yady students do.
1. Mistake No. 1. Pronouncation.
2. Mistake No. 2. “What does it mean?”
3 о Mistake No. 3. “Ah”, and “Ooh”, “Wow”, and so forth lack meaning.
4. Mistake No. 4. “Huh”, and “OK”, and fist shake of head. These are also gestures that negatine things.
5. Mistake No. 5. Asking senseless questions.
6. Mistake No. 6. Confusing salutations and such like words with the beginning of the paragraph or of sentences.
7. Mistake No. 7.
8. Mistake No. 8. Forming phrases of the questions with these bad techniques: “How old are you?” “Why you have come here?”
9. Mistake No. 9. Foron to order the subject and the predicate, which leads to an error.
B. Warms ups
1. Lesson ‘eighty What do our friends do?
1.What do our friends do?
a) Skateboarding by, the way
b) Studying by
c) Talking with
d) Smoking by
e) Watching TV by
Bobby is an example of a good “fellow”.
He played ball as a boy. Then that’s all. Skateboarding than sports just got into his blood. bobby is a an example of a kid who is healthy and good.
2.What do our friends do?
a) To the cinema on Saturday
b) To a restaurant in the evening
c) To a reading course through
d) To the disco dance hall to go
e) To sports on Sunday
“Goran” is an example of person who is very energetic. He will go to disco dancing that Saturday as it’s a Birthday Party for his Lover. She is also very energetic girl. They go to every disco dancing and goran doesn’t run around with other girls.
3.What do our friends do?
a) Talking about her day over late
b) To read literature
c) On a computer talking with the friends
d) To the village
e) Studying the Native American dictionary.
“Terrence” is a shy boy. He don’t enjoy parties but some of his friends are more active than him. “Olga” his friend is a very worogirl. She will never arrive to disco parties than go on the street.
4.What do our friends do?
a) Talk US visa conditions
b) To your dream message in
c) Email advertising